The practice of building quick, inexpensive, and rough study models to learn about the desirability, feasability, and viability of alternative value propositions. - Osterwalder, 2014


Asante-Agyei, C., Manfredi, L., & Erickson, I. (2022). Unfolding the future: Prototypes as epistemic objects in innovation and collaboration work.

Matthews, B., & Wensveen, S. (2015). Prototypes and prototyping in design research (pp. 262–276).

Klein, E. E., & Herskovitz, P. J. (2007). Philosophy of science underpinnings of prototype validation: Popper vs. Quine. Information Systems Journal, 17(1), 111–132.